• Portfolio Strategies
  • Retirement Plans: Evaluating the New Roth IRA Conversion Opportunity

    by Christine S. Fahlund

    Retirement Plans: Evaluating The New Roth IRA Conversion Opportunity Splash image

    Starting in 2010, investors have the option of converting all or part of their money in a traditional IRA (Individual Retirement Account) into a Roth IRA regardless of how much they earn.

    Until now, such conversions could be done only by those with modified adjusted gross incomes of $100,000 or less. This change is especially timely, given the growing number of Baby Boomers retiring in the near future and likely rolling over their nest eggs from their 401(k) accounts into IRAs.

    Whether you are years from retirement or even approaching retirement, you may find it worthwhile to consider a Roth IRA conversion—either for yourself or to potentially leave tax-free assets to heirs.

    The advantages include:

    • The converted assets—“the principal”—in the Roth IRA can be withdrawn tax-free at any time;
    • Any future earnings in the account are also tax-free (with some limitations); and
    • The account owner will not be required to take any minimum distributions in retirement.

    There is a downside, however: The taxable amount of a traditional IRA (earnings plus deductible contributions) converted to a Roth IRA is subject to current taxation.

    So, investors must examine whether it is worthwhile to go through this tax toll booth today so they can withdraw earnings from a Roth IRA as tax-free income during retirement or perhaps leave those assets to heirs who would avoid taxes on the earnings as well.

    Given that the values of many IRA accounts remain depressed by the recent financial crisis and that some investors expect tax rates to increase, a Roth conversion could pay off in the long run.

    Among the general findings of a new T. Rowe Price analysis on this Roth IRA conversion opportunity:

    • As a general rule of thumb, the farther away you are from drawing down from your IRAs—for income or required minimum distributions—the more advantageous pre-paying taxes to convert to a Roth IRA will be, because there are more years to potentially grow and compound earnings tax-free.
    • The investor’s potential tax bracket in retirement is also important. If the investor’s tax rate drops significantly after retirement, it may not be as beneficial to convert, since the investor would be paying taxes on any earnings (and deductible contributions) at a higher rate now. But if the tax rate rises, converting now may be more attractive since taxes due as a result of the conversion would be paid at the lower current rate, while withdrawals from the traditional IRA in retirement would be taxed at a potentially higher rate. In this sense, a partial conversion made today could be viewed as a hedge against possible increases in income tax rates later, or as a tax diversification strategy.
    • For investors who convert traditional IRA assets to a Roth IRA and do not intend to take retirement withdrawals from the Roth IRA unless needed for late-in-life emergencies, a conversion provides the opportunity to turn a relatively small amount of savings into a surprisingly sizeable bequest to their heirs.
    • In any case, for the Roth IRA conversion to result in the most tax-deferred assets, any taxes due on the amount converted should be paid from a separate taxable account and not the IRA itself.

    To Convert or Not to Convert

    To examine the potential benefits of a Roth IRA conversion, here are some hypothetical cases of investors who are planning for, or entering, retirement.

    Table 1 summarizes the results for three investors, ages 45, 55, and 65, planning to convert $25,000, $50,000, and $100,000, respectively, to a Roth IRA. In each case, the investor expects to rely on withdrawals from the accounts for income in retirement. When converted, the traditional IRA assets are subject to taxation because they consist of deductible contributions and earnings, and the taxes due on the conversion are paid from a separate taxable account.

    Assuming tax rates remain the same after retirement, all three investors would modestly benefit overall from the conversion in the long run—and the more years from retirement, the greater the benefit. The assumptions used in this model result in a long-term aftertax advantage of about 10% for the retiree converting at age 65. However, the 55- and 45-year-old individuals could achieve long-term aftertax advantages of about 18% and 22%, respectively.

    Keep in mind that the taxable amount converted into the Roth IRA is considered taxable income, so it is possible that a large conversion could push the investor into a higher tax bracket for a particular year, increasing the tax due on the converted amount. The 65-year-old investor in this example, for instance, saw her combined marginal federal-state tax rate jump from 28.75% to 31.6% for one year as a result of the $100,000 conversion.

    That is one reason investors might prefer to convert portions of their traditional IRA over several years, rather than doing it all in one year. This approach may enable investors to avoid a big jump in tax liability in a single year.

    Building a Tax-Free Nest Egg

    While a Roth IRA conversion may not provide substantial additional benefits for investors who consider their IRAs a source of steady income in retirement, it could prove extremely worthwhile for those who can afford to accumulate a fund for possible emergency expenses later in retirement, or possibly leave tax-free assets to their beneficiaries.

    For example, what if the 45-year-old making a $25,000 Roth IRA conversion (as detailed in Table 1) made no withdrawals from the account? (Remember, a Roth IRA is exempt from required minimum distributions (RMDs), which the owner of a traditional IRA must make upon reaching age 70½ and for each year thereafter.)

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    Roth IRA Conversion Basics

    If you are considering converting assets from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA, here are some nuts and bolts:

    • A key advantage is that the amount converted from a traditional IRA and any future earnings in the Roth IRA can be withdrawn tax-free in retirement (after age 59½) if the account has been established for at least five years. Beneficiaries inheriting a Roth IRA may also be able to take distributions tax-free.
    • The investor must pay income taxes on the taxable amount of the traditional IRA (earnings plus any deductible contributions) converted to a Roth IRA. In 2010 only, investors who complete a Roth IRA conversion will have the option of paying taxes due on the conversion for that tax year, or spreading the taxable income equally between the 2011 and 2012 tax years.
    • If tax rates remain the same or decline after 2010, it would most likely be advantageous to delay the tax payment for a Roth IRA conversion completed in calendar year 2010. If tax rates rise modestly after 2010—as they are set to do unless Congress passes a new tax law next year—it may be better to pay the tax for a 2010 conversion for the 2010 tax year, assuming the conversion itself does not push the investor into a higher tax bracket in 2010.
    • Because taxes due on a Roth IRA conversion completed in 2010 would not be payable until April 15, 2011, the investor should know by then what new tax rates, if any, are in effect, and make the decision of when to pay the tax at that time. (In this case, the actual conversion would have to have taken place on or before December 31, 2010.)
    • The taxable portion of the amount converted from a traditional IRA is calculated based on all the investor’s traditional IRA accounts—not just the one that may be tapped for conversion. So, if the investor had made any non-deductible contributions to a traditional IRA account, the portion of any conversion that is not subject to tax would be the total aftertax contributions to all his or her traditional IRAs divided by the total value of all the traditional IRAs at the time the conversion is made. The same rule applies to any additional Roth IRA conversions made in subsequent years.
    • To minimize the tax impact in any one year, the investor can do several partial conversions spread out over different tax years, but only conversions in 2010 are eligible for a delay in paying taxes due on conversion.
    • Those who make a Roth IRA conversion can later nullify it and “recharacterize” the amount converted to a traditional IRA (certain restrictions apply).
    • No required minimum distributions must be made from a Roth IRA during the account owner’s lifetime. In a traditional IRA, required minimum distributions  (RMDs) must be taken beginning for the year the investor reaches age 70½, and each year thereafter.

    The accumulated results for this investor at various ages are shown in Table 2. By age 85, for example, the balance in the Roth IRA would have grown to more than $366,000, or about $100,000 more than the balance in the traditional IRA if the conversion had not been made. This money could provide a comfortable cushion for unexpected expenses late in retirement.

    A Bonanza for Beneficiaries?

    The Roth IRA could provide a significant advantage over a traditional IRA if it turns out the owner did not need the money and leaves it to beneficiaries.

    Non-spouse beneficiaries of an inherited Roth IRA must take required minimum distributions from the account over their own remaining actuarial life expectancy (certain conditions apply). But such distributions over this extended period may be income-tax-free, whereas all earnings and deductible contributions withdrawn from an inherited traditional IRA are taxable to the beneficiary. Beneficiaries can take more than the minimum amount at any time.

    If the 45-year-old investor used in previous examples died at age 85 and bequeathed the $366,000 accumulated in the Roth IRA to a 55-year-old child beneficiary, the total Roth IRA benefit could be more than $1 million by the time this beneficiary reached 75 (assuming only required minimum distributions were taken from the account and using the same return assumptions noted in Table 1). This would be almost double the amount left in the traditional IRA.

    If the money were left to a 25-year-old grandchild instead of the 55-year-old child, it could grow to as much as $4.6 million by the time the grandchild reached 65 compared with $2.3 million from a traditional IRA, applying the same assumptions.

    This strategy could also prove extremely worthwhile even for older investors entering retirement, who may be much more certain they want to carve out a tax-free bequest for heirs.

    Consider the hypothetical 65-year-old investor who converts $100,000 to a Roth IRA and pays the $28,750 in taxes from a separate account. If she takes no distributions, she will have an account balance of more than $320,000 by age 85 (using the same return assumptions as in Table 1).

    If she dies at that age and leaves the money to a 55-year-old child, for example, it could provide more than $1 million in cumulative tax-free distributions and the remaining account balance after 25 years—or more than twice as much as if the money had remained in the original traditional IRA. The potential benefit, at various ages of the beneficiary, is reflected in Table 3.

    A Roth IRA is one of the most valuable assets people can leave their children or grandchildren. The investments are tax-sheltered, the income can be tax-free, and, after the death of the Roth IRA account owner, those who inherit the assets can make withdrawals based on their life expectancies, generally to age 80 or older.

    While the benefits of a Roth IRA conversion could be considerable, investors must carefully weigh the upfront tax costs against the long-term tax advantages. Those considering a conversion should consult their tax advisors for the best strategy.

    Christine S. Fahlund , Ph.D. and CFP, is a senior financial planner and vice president of T. Rowe Price Group, an investment management firm based in Baltimore, Maryland.


    Fred from CA posted over 6 years ago:

    The article does not discuss converting 401k plan rollovers into Roth IRAs. I understand T.Rowe Price, Fidelity, Merrill Lynch, etc, are all permitting clients to roll the after-tax contributions from 401k plans into Roth IRAs. Is this correct? In other words, say a retired person had $100 in a 401k plan, which included $20 which was contributed from after tax wages that were previously taxed. The cost basis would be 20% in this example. Can the retiree roll the $80 into a regular IRA and also roll the $20 (after tax portion) into a Roth IRA without incurring any taxable income. Or will the IRS tax 80% of the $20 rolled into the Roth?

    Marie from NY posted over 5 years ago:

    My understanding is that you must report the $20 and state that 80% is pretax and 20% is after tax, but that there IS a way around this. I don't know what it is, but am always advised to talk with a tax specialist.

    Bruce from NY posted over 5 years ago:

    In January 2010 I opened a new Traditional IRA. I funded it with $6,000 for 2009 and $6,000 for 2010 (I am of age.) The next day I converted to a Roth IRA. The converted balance was $12,000.03. I assumed I would only have to pay tax on the $.03 gain. However, in completing my 2010 tax return using Turbotax, I am taxed on the full $12,000.03. This can't be correct, can it? The $12,000 contribution was not made as a deductible contribution. It seems as though I will be double taxed on the $12,000. Is this correct, or is Turbotax missing something?

    Bryan from CA posted over 5 years ago:

    What is the process to convert a solid six figure 401k to a Roth IRA? Am I correct in assuming that the 401k must be first converted to a traditional IRA and then to a Roth? Can this be done while still employed, or does one have to retire first?

    Leonard from NY posted over 5 years ago:

    What about your RMD's? Being over 70 1/2, I have to take required minimum distributions (RMD) but find that I don't need it all for the year. Can I take the unused part and convert that to a Rith or are RMD's prohibited from being transferred?

    Leonard from NY posted over 5 years ago:

    That's Roth of course, not Rith.

    Ronald from MA posted over 5 years ago:

    Hi Leonard From NY
    You ask about RMD conversions to a Roth. When you are over 70.5,you can only make a Roth conversion AFTER you take out the required MRD for the year from your traditional IRA. You will be taxed on the MRD plus the ROTH conversion.

    I do this because filling a married return and with standard dedctions, personal exemptions, and over 65 breaks means I can have an income of over 90K and still be in the 15% tax bracket. the money I put in the ROTH will go to the Kids who are in a higher tax bracket so I use the converted money as an estate planning tool. Remember I said you must take your whole MRD for the year FIRST before you can convert to a ROTH!

    Don from CA posted over 5 years ago:

    I (age 79) convered $105,000 as part of my IRA last year (2010). The value has been reduced now to $97,000. Do I have until October 1 (?) of 2011 to change back to all IRA if I have some $8-10,000 in less $$ values come October? I have no intention on drawing from this Roth anytime in the future.

    Marty from NY posted over 5 years ago:

    You also have to trust that the government - you know those people in washington that keep running out of money - is not going to change its mind in the future and tax you anyway.

    C from VA posted over 5 years ago:

    If your IRA is all stock, do you have to sell your positions and transfer cash or can you transfer the stock with the tax basis being the value of the stock on the day of transfer?

    All stock bought with untaxed income.

    Charles from IL posted over 5 years ago:

    C - Check with your broker. You may be able to move the assets over without selling your positions. -Charles Rotblut

    Paul from CA posted over 5 years ago:

    Bruce, I just noticed your question. In case you never fixed that...the $20k non-deductible contribution to a traditional IRA becomes the cost basis that should have rolled into the calculation of the taxable portion of the Roth IRA. You should have entered the Traditional IRA first as non-deductible, the taxable income would have been $0.30.

    TurboTax isn't very helpful on this, so you should print out the page and work it by hand to see how it flows.

    Ron, My understanding is that you have until October IF you did not already file your tax returns are still on the automatic extension. I think if you already filed, you are out of luck.

    Robert from VA posted over 5 years ago:

    Bruce -- old post, but if still a concern:
    You aren't double taxed, because the IRA contributions of $6,000 and $6,000 were deducted from your earned income for the referable years -- so you are only taxed once for those amounts as a result of the conversion.

    James from TX posted over 5 years ago:

    I converted a mutual fund from my IRA to my Roth IRA last year. Since then it has dropped in value by 25%. So I want to recharacterize this mutual fund. But I have been told I will still owe tax since the IRS only looks at the dollar amount and this fund has dropped in value more than the whole Roth IRA. So don't count on a recharacterization to get out of paying tax on the original conversion.

    Jim from FL posted over 5 years ago:

    Fidelity allowes you to roll over your 401k positions to a Roth in cash or stocks. That goes for your MRD's also. You will have to call Fidelity if you want to do a stock to stock move for your MRD.

    Trust from WA posted over 5 years ago:

    Bruce: I believe TurboTax may have an error in this type of transaction. See their discussion at:


    Terry from KS posted over 4 years ago:

    Is it safe to say the greatest potential benefit of Roth conversion is to minimize tax liability for heirs?

    With regard to potential benefits for investors with longer investment horizons, theres no argument with the math of compounding. Then again, how many young investors will choose a deferred benefit over current tax savings, especially if they have expenses to meet?

    With regard to "avoiding higher tax rates in retirement", the only scenario where tax rates go up is if retiree income significantly increases. What group of retirees expect to be in that situation?

    Marty from CA posted over 4 years ago:

    Terence- Future MRDs from a tax-deferred account will increase your taxable income potentially pushing you into a higher tax bracket. Lowering the balance in the tax-deferred account through a Roth conversion will reduce the future MRD. The age 70 MRD (taxable income) on a tax-deferred IRA $1MM balance is $36,496.35. And **percentage-wise** the MRD mostly increases thereafter. Check out the Fidelity.com MRD calculator.

    chris from WA posted about 1 year ago:

    table 1 seems to be slightly off or maybe it is just me.

    As an example, shouldn't the future value of 25K at 8%/year be 25000*(1.08)^20 = 116523.93?
    The table has it as 114366. Similar issue for the 50K over 10 years. At least 100K over 0 years gives a consistent number.

    The differences are not big enough to contradict the conclusions but it does make one wonder what is meant by "an 8% annual rate of return before retirement at age 65..."

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